In the Name of God
Electronic Commerce Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Chapter one- General Provisions
Part 1 – General
Section 1 – Domain and Application
Article 1 - This Law consists of a set of rules and principles to be applied for easy and secure
communication of information in electronic intermediaries using state of the art communication
Section 2 – Definitions
Article 2 –
a) “Data Message”: Any representation of facts, information, and concepts generated, sent,
received, stored, or processed by use of electronic, optical or other information technology
b) “Originator”: The original source of “data message” by whom, or on whose behalf, the
“data message” have been generated or sent but it does not include a person acting as an
intermediary with respect to that “data message”.
c) “Addressee”: The person intended by the originator to receive the “data message”, but it
does not include a person acting as an intermediary with respect to that “data message”.
d) “Incorporation by Reference”: refers to a source outside the “data message”; which in
case of its compliance with Article 18 of this Law, is deemed to be part of that “data
e) “Integrity”: The “data message” in its entirety and with no change. System management
such as sending, receiving, storing or displaying data doesn’t affect the Integrity of a “data
f) “Computer System”: Any type of system or a set of networked hardware/software-based
systems applying auto-processing programs on “data messages”.
g) “Information System”: A system for generating (originating), sending, receiving, storing
or processing “data message”.
h) “Secure Information System”: An information system that:
1. Is reasonably protected against any misuse or penetration;
2. Possesses a reasonable level of proper accessibility and administration;
3. Is reasonably designed and organized in accordance with the significance of the task on
4. Is in compliance with secure methods.
i) “Secure Method”: A method to authenticate the correctness, the origin and the destination
of a “data message”, along with its date and to detect any error or modification, in
communication, content, or storage of a “data message” from a certain point. A secure
message is generated using algorithms or codes, identification words or numbers,
encryption, acknowledgement call-back procedures or similar secure techniques.
j) “Electronic Signature”: Any sign appended or logically affixed to a “data message”
which may be used to identify its signatory.
k) “Secure/Enhanced/Advanced Electronic Signature”: Any electronic signature that is in
compliance with Article 10 of this Law.
l) “Signatory”: Any person, or someone who acts on his/her behalf, who generates an
m) “Person”: Any natural or juridical person or the computer systems under their control.
n) “Reasonable Test”: Is evaluated based on the status of a “data message” communication,
taking into consideration the nature of communication, parties skill and position, their
communication quantity, accessibility of the proposed options, and their dismissal by either
side, expenses arising from proposed options, customary methods applied in such
o) “Consumer”: Any person acting for any purpose other than business or professional
p) “Supplier”: Any person acting in his commercial, union or professional capacity.
q) “Means of Distance Transaction”: Any means which, without the simultaneous physical
presence of the supplier and the consumer, may be used to sell goods and services.
r) “Distance Contract”: Offer and Acceptance for goods and services between a supplier
and a consumer via means of distance transaction.
s) “Durable Medium”: Any means such as: Floppy Disk, Compact Disc, Hard Disk, or
consumer's e-mail on which the consumer can personally store a “data message”.
t) “Private data”: A “data message” associated with a specific person (Data Subject).
Section 3 – Interpretation
Article 3 – The international origin, the need to promote uniformity in its application, and the
observance of good faith should always be taken into consideration in the interpretations of this
Article 4 – Upon any ambiguity of the chapter one of this Law, courts of law shall pass their
judgment in conformity with other statutes and within the framework of the parts, terms and
conditions contained in this Law.
Section 4 – Validity of Private Agreements
Article 5 – Any change in the generation procedures, sending, receipt, storage or processing of a
“data message” is deemed valid upon a mutual private agreement and consent.
Part 2 – Data message provisions
Written Document, Original Signature
Article 6 - When the existence of a written document is deemed legally requisite, “data message”
can be used as a replacement except unless for the following cases:
a) Ownership documents of immovable property.
b) Sale of medical materials to the final consumers.
c) Announcements, notifications, warnings or the like statements issuing a particular
provision on the use of goods or prohibiting the use of certain methods or their omission
Article 7 - Where the law requires a signature, an electronic signature may suffice.
Article 8 – Where the law requires that the information be presented or retained in its original
form, it is also possible to retain it as “data message” if the following requirements are met:
- The information contained therein is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent
- “Data message” is retained in the same format it was generated, sent or received or in a
format which can exactly represent the information generated, sent or received.
- The information, if any, enabling the identification of the origin and destination of a
“data message” and the date and time when it was sent or received is also retained.
- Other provisions that an institution, organization, and governmental agency or ministry
has laid down within the scope of their functions are retained.
Article 9 – Under any circumstance where the distribution of a "data message" is terminated from
a certain point in time and it is replaced with a paper document, this shall be expressly stated in the
paper document. Such a replacement will on no occasion affect previous rights and obligations
between both parties.
Part 2 – Secure "data message"
Section 1: Secure Electronic Signature and Electronic Record
Article 10 – A secure electronic signature must contain the following requirements:
a) Be unique to the signatory.
b) Identify the signatory of "data message".
c) Be signed by the signatory or under his/her sole intention.
d) Be affixed to “data message” in a way that any change in data message can be detected
Article 11 – A secure electronic record is a “data message” which is stored by the observance of
the requirements of a secure information system and is accessible and perceivable when needed.
Section 2 – Admissibility, Evidential Value, and Consequences of Secure Electronic
Record and Signature
Article 12 – Evidence and any supporting document may be in the form of “data message”. The
evidential value of a “data message” can by no means be repudiated solely due to its form and
framework at any court or governmental office.
Article 13 – In general, the evidential value of a “data message” depends on the methods used to
guarantee its security such as selecting a security measure that corresponds to the subject and
purpose of the “data message”.
Article 14 – All “data messages” which have been generated and stored via secure method are
deemed to be valid and reliable documents by judicial or legal authorities in terms of what they
contain as well as included signature therein, obligations of both parties or the party who
covenants and all persons who act legally on their behalf, and effecting the terms and conditions
Article 15 – The validity of a secure "data message", secure electronic record and secure electronic
signature may not be questioned or denied; only a claim of forgery of a "data message" or a proof
of its invalidity on a legal basis may be considered.
Article 16 – Any “data message” recorded and retained by a third party in accordance with the
provisions of Article 11 of this Law, is deemed valid.
Part 4 – Communication of "Data Message"
Section 1 – Legal Validity of Incorporation by Reference, Contract and Intention of Parties
Article 17 – "Incorporation by Reference" is valid upon the satisfaction of one of the following
a) Object of reference is expressly stated in the "data message".
b) Object of reference is explicit and specified for the relying party.
c) The referenced "data message" is acceptable by the relying party.
Section 2 – Attribution of "data message"
Article 18 – In the following cases, a "data message" is attributed to the originator:
a) If it is sent by the originator or by a person who had the authority to act on behalf of the
originator in respect to that “data message”.
b) If it is sent by a programmed information system or automated agent on behalf of the
Article 19 – The addressee is entitled to regard the "data message" which is sent according to one
of the following conditions as having been sent and to act on that assumption (having been sent):
a) A method is introduced by or agreed with the originator indicating that the "data
message" is in fact the same “data message” that was sent by the originator.
b) The "data message” as received by the addressee resulted from the actions of a person
whose relationship with the originator or with any agent of the originator enabled that
person to gain access to a method used by the originator to identify “data messages” as
Article 20 – Article 19 of this Law does not comprise the cases where the message is not issued
from the originator or is mistakenly issued.
Article 21 – Every "data message" is deemed to be a separate and distinct "data message" unless it
turns out that the given "data message" is a duplicate of the original "data message".
Section 3 –Acknowledgement of Receipt
Article 22 – Where on or before sending a "data message", the originator has requested or agreed
that the receipt of a "data message" be acknowledged, in case that no discussion or agreement has
been reached on how to perform it, any automated communication or correspondence or adoption
of any proper measure on the part of the addressee that reasonably assures the originator of the
"data message" receipt, is deemed to be the acknowledgement of receipt.
Article 23 – Where the originator has expressly stated that any legal effect of the “data message”
is conditional on receipt of the acknowledgement, the “data message” is treated as though it has
never been sent, until the acknowledgement is received.
Article 24 – Presumption of the receipt of "data message" does not hold true on the content of the
Article 25 – Where in the received acknowledgement it is stated that the receipt of related “data
message” met technical requirements of applicable standards or a mutually agreed procedure, it is
presumed that those requirements have been met.
Section 4: Time and Place of Dispatch and Receipt of "Data Message"
Article 26 – the dispatch of a "data message" occurs when it enters an information system outside
the control of the originator or his/her agent.
Article 27 – The time of receipt of a "data message" is determined as follows:
a) If the addressee's information system has been designated for the receipt of the “data
messages”, receipt occurs when:
- The "data message" enters the designated information system; or
- The "data message" enters an information system of the addressee that is not the
one solely designated for such a purpose, and it is retrieved;
b) If the addressee has not designated an information system for the receipt, receipt occurs
when the “data message” enters an information system of the addressee.
Article 28 – The terms and conditions of Article 27 of this Law is effective regardless of the
location of the information system.
Article 29 – In the event the location of the information system is different from that of the receipt
of the "data message", the following conditions are to be effective:
a) Unless otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee, a “data message” is
deemed to be dispatched at the place where the originator has its place of business or
work, and is deemed to be received at the place where the addressee has its place of
business or work.
b) If the originator has more than one commercial domicile, the closest one to the
place of transaction is considered his commercial domicile; otherwise, the corporate
headquarters is considered as the commercial domicile.
c) If the originator or addressee does not have a commercial domicile, their residence is
considered to be their commercial domicile.
Article 30 – The legal effects following attribution, receipt of acknowledgement, time and place of
dispatch and receipt of "data message", the subject of section 2 to section 4 of Part 4 of this Law
and also contents of "data message" are subject to general provision.
Chapter 2 – Certification Service Provider
Article 31 – Certification Service Providers are established to provide electronic signature services
nationwide. These services consist of generation, issuance, transmission, confirmation, dismissal
and update of electronic signature certificates.
Article 32 – The laws and regulations for the establishment of certification service provider, also
the detailed liabilities of such centers will be prepared by the Management and Planning
Organization, and the Ministries of Commerce, Communication and Information Technology,
Economic Affairs & Finance, and Justice and ratified by the cabinet.
Chapter 3 – Miscellaneous
Part 1 –Sole Protection in Electronic Transactions
Section 1 – Consumer Protection
Article 33 – Sellers of goods and service providers shall, in good time and before entering into
contract and providing the consumer with information affecting his decision making for the
purpose of purchase or acceptance of the terms. The minimum required information includes the
a) Technical specifications and functional characteristics of goods or services.
b) The identity of the supplier, the trade name under which he is working and his
c) E-mail address, telephone number, or any method by which the customer, when
needed, can contact the seller.
d) All the expenses that will be charged to the customer for the purchase of goods
(including the price of goods or services, tax, freight cost, calling charges).
e) The period for which the offer remains valid.
f) Terms and process of contract including payment terms and arrangements, delivery or
implementation, cancellation, return, after-sales services.
Article 34 – Along with approving the preliminary information, the supplier shall also separately
send the following pieces of information:
a) The business or work address of the supplier for possible complaints.
b) Information on after-sales services and guarantees.
c) Terms and conditions to terminate the contract according to Articles 37 and
38 of this Law.
d) Terms and conditions of cancellation in service contracts.
Article 35 – The stated information and acknowledgment of stated information to the consumer
shall be provided in a durable medium, clear and comprehensible manner in good time and by use
of appropriate means of communication within a certain period, with due regard to good faith in
commercial transactions, such as special measures for the disabled, and the children.
Article 36 – In the case of telephone communications, the identity of the supplier and the
commercial purpose of the call shall be made explicitly clear at the beginning of any conversation
with the consumer.
Article 37 – For any distance transaction the consumer shall have a period of at least seven
working days in which to withdraw from the contract (right of withdrawal) without penalty and
without giving any reason. The only charge that may be made to the consumer is the cost of
returning the goods.
Article 38 – The withdrawal may be exercised as follows:
a) In case of sale of goods, from the day of delivery of goods to the consumer and in case
of sale of services from the day the contract is effective.
b) In any case, the exercise of consumer's right of withdrawal begins once the information
the supplier is bound to present according to Articles 33 and 34 of this Law is
c) As soon as the right of withdrawal has been exercised by the consumer pursuant the
supplier shall immediately reimburse the sums paid by the consumer free of charge.
d) Consumer's right of withdrawal may not be exercised in cases where the type of goods
and services are subject to particular terms. Such cases are according to the regulations
being specified in accordance with Article 79 of this Law.
Article 39 – Where a supplier fails to perform his side of the contract on the grounds that the
goods are unavailable or services can not be performed, he is bound to immediately refund the
sums he has received to the addressee unless in case of sale of merchandise of a general
description and obligations whose fulfillment is not impossible for ever and the addressee is
willing to wait until the availability of goods or performance of obligation. If the supplier turns out
to be aware of his incapability of performing his obligation from the beginning, in addition to
being bound to reimburse the sums he has received, he is sentenced to the maximum punishment
under this Law.
Article 40 – The supplier can provide the consumer with goods or services of equivalent quality
and price provided that this was announced before or during the transaction.
Article 41 – If the supplier dispatches the consumer goods or services other than subject of the
transaction or obligation, the goods and services shall be returned and the cost of returning shall be
borne by the supplier. Nevertheless, if the dispatched goods and services are offered by the
supplier as another transaction or obligation, the addressee can accept it.
Article 42 – The protections laid down herein do not apply in the following cases:
a) The financial services the list of which is determined by the regulations specified in
accordance with Article 79 of this Law.
b) Transactions relating to sale of immovable property or rights of ownership arising from
immovable property except for rental.
c) Purchase from automatic vending machines.
d) Transactions carried out through the use of public payphones.
e) Transactions carried out in auctions
Article 43 - The supplier shall not regard the silence of the consumer as contentment.
Article 44 – In the case of a dispute or uncertainty, the case shall be examined by judicial
Article 45 – The execution of consumer's rights under this Law shall not be limited by other Laws
that provide less support for the consumer.
Article 46 – The use of contractual conditions that are in contradiction with the regulations of this
section and also the application of unfair conditions that disadvantages consumer shall not be
Article 47 – In distance transactions, that part of the transaction which is carried out through a
method other than means of distance transaction is not subject to the regulations of this Law.
Article 48 – Legal and civil organizations protecting consumer's rights can file a suit as a
petitioner. Its processing is subject to regulations that will be proposed by the Ministry of
Commerce and ratified by the cabinet.
Article 49 –Consumer's rights when dealing with Electronic Payment systems is subject to rules
and regulations which have been or will be ratified by the relevant judicial authorities.
Section 2: Marketing
Article 50 – Suppliers, in the process of marketing their goods and services, shall not commit or
exclude an act that may mislead and deceive the addressee in terms of quantity and quality.
Article 51 – Suppliers who are advertising for the sale of their goods and services shall not
endanger people's health.
Article 52 – The supplier shall advertise in such a manner that would enable the consumer to
precisely, accurately, and clearly understand the description of the advertised goods and services.
Article 53 – In advertising and marketing processes, the identity of the person or business who is
advertising should be clear, and evident.
Article 54 – Suppliers shall not take advantage of the special features of electronic transactions to
conceal facts in relation to their identity or place of business.
Article 55 – Suppliers shall provide the consumers with the required arrangements that would
enable them to choose whether to receive the advertisements at their mailing or e-mail address.
Article 56 – Suppliers shall act professionally. The corresponding rules and regulations shall be in
accordance with Article 79 of this Law.
Article 57 – Advertisement and marketing for children and young people under the legal age is
subject to regulations that will be stated in Article 79 of this Law.
Section3: Protection of Private "Data Message"
Article 58 – Storing, processing or distributing private "data messages" which may reveal tribal or
ethnic origins, moral and religious beliefs, ethical characteristics, and “data messages” regarding
the physical, psychological, or sexual condition of people, without their explicit consent is illegal.
Article 59 – Upon the consent of the person who is the subject of a "data message", provided that
the content of the "data message" is in accordance with statute laws of the Islamic Consultative
Assembly, storing, processing, and distributing personal "data messages" via electronic means
shall be subject to the following terms:
a) Its goals shall be specified and clearly described.
b) The "data message" shall be collected to the required extent and in compliance with the
goals described to the person who is the subject of the "data message" while collecting
the information and be applied merely for the goals set out therein.
c) The "data message" shall be correct and up-to-date.
d) The person who is the subject of a "data message" shall have access to those computer
files containing his/her personal "data messages" and be able to remove or amend
partial or incorrect "data messages".
e) The person who is the subject of “data message”, while adhering to the regulations,
shall be able to request the complete removal of the computer files of his personal "data
Article 60 – Storing, processing, or distributing "data messages" of medical or health records are
subject to the regulations in accordance with Article 79 of this Law.
Article 61 – Other issues on the accessibility of the subject of a "data message" such as exceptions,
the supervision and control of personal "data messages" are subject to terms and conditions
contained in Chapter Four of this Law and relevant regulations.
Part 2: Protection of "data message" in electronic transactions
Section 2: Protection of Authors' Right in electronic transactions
Article 62 – The right to copy, perform and distribute (supply, and publish) materials that are
subject to the protection of authors', composers' and artists' rights Law enacted on 1348/9/3 and
translation and copy of books and publications and audio products Law enacted on 1352/9/26 and
the protection of computer software producers Law enacted on 1379/10/4 , in the form of a “data
message” belongs exclusively to the author. Any publication or work in the form of "data
message" such as information, software and computer programs, computerized tools and methods,
databases, and also intellectual property rights, when dealing with electronic transactions, is
subject to patent rights, author's rights, rights related to the author's right, protection of databases,
protection of Integrated Circuits & Chips, protection of trade secrets, foregoing terms of this
Article and registration of trade names and invention Law enacted on 1310/4/1 and amended
executive procedures of enforcing registration of trade marks and invention Law enacted on
1337/4/14 provided that the stated items in both of the laws comply with other ratifications of the
Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Note 1 – Rights related to literary and Artistic rights, previously referred to as neighboring rights
include the rights of other elements in addition to the author such as the rights of the artists
performing the work, producers of audio and video products, and recording and distributing
organizations and institutions which are subject to the laws enacted on 1348/9/2 and 1352/9/26
Note 2 – Integrated Circuit is an electronic component with a particular diagram and logic whose
functionality and applicability can be replaced with a large number of regular electronic
components. Subject to the Registration of Trade marks and Invention Law enacted on 1310/4/1
and amended regulations of enforcing registration of trade marks and invention Law enacted on
1337/4/14, the design and placement diagrams, and the logic of these circuits are protected.
Article 63 – Temporary acts of copy, performance, and distribution of the work which is an
inevitable part of "data message" processing on networks is not subject to the foregoing regulation.
Section 2 – Protection of Trade Secrets
Article 64 – In order to protect legitimate and fair competitions in electronic transactions, illegal
acquisition of trade or economic secrets of agencies and institutions or the disclosure of such
secrets to third parties in electronic environment is deemed an offence and the offender will be
sentenced according to this Law.
Article 65 – Electronic trade secrets are "data messages" consisting of information, formulas,
patterns, software and programs, means and methods, techniques and procedures, unpublished
writings, business and transaction methods and procedures, strategies, plans, financial information,
customers list, trade projects and the like which have an economic value by themselves, are
inaccessible to the public and reasonable efforts have been made for their protection.
Section 3 – Protection of Trade Marks
Article 66 – In order to protect consumers' rights and encourage legitimate competition in trough
electronic transactions, use of trade marks as domain name or any online usage of trade marks
which may mislead or deceive the other party in terms of the originality of goods and services is
illegal and the offender will be sentenced according to this Law.
Chapter Four – Fines and Penalties
Part 1 – Fraud
Article 67 –Anyone who deceives others or misleads auto- processing systems and the like, during
an electronic transaction, by misuse or unlawful use of "data messages", programs, computer
systems, and means of distance transaction, and committing such acts as penetration, removal, and
termination of a "data message", interfering with the application of a computer system or program,
etc. and by means of this method obtains property or financial concessions for himself or others, is
deemed an offender and in addition to the return of property to its owner is given a one to three
year sentence in prison and pecuniary punishment equal to appropriated property.
Note – Initiation of such crime is also deemed to be a crime and its penalty is the minimum
punishment in this Article.
Part 2 – Forgery
Article 68 - In electronic transactions, anyone forging "data messages" which are of financial and
evidential value in order to use it as a valid "data message" in judicial, financial offices, etc, by
means of penetration, removal, and termination of "data messages" and interference with
computer systems and "data message" processing, or use of applied means of encryption systems
to make a signature – like private keys – without signatory's permission, or by making a signature
lacking registration record in electronic registration offices, or incompliance of those means with
the name of the owner in the same list and obtaining a forged certificate and the like, is considered
a forger and sentenced for one to three years imprisonment and a cash penalty of 50,000,000 Rls.
Note – The penalty of initiation of this crime is the minimum of the punishment in this Article.
Part 3 – Violation of Exclusive Rights in Electronic Transactions
Section 1 – Violation of Consumer's Rights and Advertising Regulations
Article 69 – A supplier who violates Articles 33, 34, 35, 36, and 37 of this Law will be sentenced
to a penalty of 10,000,000 to 50,000,000 Rls.
Note – A supplier who violates Article 37 will receive maximum punishment.
Article 70 – A supplier who violates Article 39, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, and 55 of this Law will be
sentenced to a penalty of 20,000,000 to 100,000,000 Rls.
Note 1 – A supplier who violates Article 51 of this Law will receive the maximum punishment as
Note 2 – A supplier who violates Article 55 of this Law will receive the minimum punishment as
Section 2 – Breach of Protection of Personal "Data Message"
Article 71 – In electronic transactions, anyone who violates the terms contained in Articles 51 and
58 of this Law is deemed an offender and will be sentenced to one to three year imprisonment.
Article 72 – When the offenses related to personal "data messages" are committed by Certificate
Service Providers and other responsible institutions, the offender will receive the maximum
punishment as contained in Article 71 of this Law.
Article 73 – If, upon negligence or carelessness of Certificate Service Providers, offences of
personal "data messages" are committed, the offender will be sentenced to three months to one
year imprisonment and a cash penalty of 50,000,000 Rls.
Part 4 – Violation of "Data Message" Protection in Electronic Transactions
Section 1 – Violation of Author's Right
Article 74 – In an electronic transaction, anyone who violates the protection of authors', composers'
and artists' rights Law enacted on 1348/9/3 and translation and copy of books and publications and
audio products Law regulated on 1352/9/26 and the protection of computer software producers Law
enacted on 1379/10/4 , provided that according to ratifications of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
the foregoing issues be deemed legal, will be sentenced from three months to one year in prison or a
penalty of 50,000,000 Rls.
Section 2 – Violation of Trade Secrets
Article 75 – Those who violate Article 64 of this Law and anyone who, trough electronic means, has
obtained trade secrets or disclosed them to third parties in order to compete, benefit, or do damage to
commercial, industrial, economical, and service corporations violating employment contract where it
prohibits revealving trade secrets, will be sentenced from 6 months to 2.5 years in prison or a penalty
of 50,000,000 Rls.
Section 3 – Violation of Trade Marks
Article 76 – Those who violate Article 66 of this Law will be sentenced from one to three years in
prison and a penalty of 20,000,000 to 100,000,000 Rls.
Section 4 – Others
Article 77 – Other offences, procedural law and regulations related to judicial competence and
methods of international legal cooperation relevant to electronic transactions are subject to the Law.
Chapter 5 – Compensation
Article 78 – When in trough electronic transactions, damage is done to a person due to the
deficiency or fault of private or governmental institutions except for physical disconnection of
electronic connection; the involved institutions are liable for compensation unless the damage is the
result of personal act which renders these persons liable for compensation.
Chapter 6 – Miscellaneous Provisions
Article 79 – The Ministry of Commerce shall identify areas relevant to electronic commerce which
may be effective in the performance of this Law and presenting proposals to be approved by the high
council of information technology, it shall seek compilation of relevant rules and the regulations of
this Law by affiliated institutions. These rules and regulations will be put into effect following
ratification of cabinet. Other regulations stated in this Law will be prepared as follows:
a) Regulations related to Articles 37 and 38 of this Law shall be prepared following a proposal
from the Ministries of Commerce, and Economic Affairs & Finance, the Management and
Planning Organization, and the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran and ratified by
b) Regulations related to Articles 56 and 57 of this Law shall be prepared following a proposal
from the Ministry of Commerce, and Culture & Islamic Guidance, and the Management and
Planning Organization and ratified by the cabinet.
c) Regulations related to Article 60 of this Law shall be prepared following a proposal from the
Ministry of Health & Medical Education and the Management and Planning Organization
and ratified by the cabinet.
Article 80 – In order to promote electronic commerce activities, the Ministry of Commerce, by
merging its existing units and some of its affiliated units, shall establish a Center. The articles of
association and its regulations shall be prepared following a proposal from the Ministry of
Commerce, and the Management and Planning Organization and ratified by the cabinet.
Article 81 – Originators, addresses, archivists, consumers and all those having a "data message"
shall maintain and make appropriate copies of the "data message" at their disposal such that in case
of any hazard for one, other copies are safe.
This Law consisting of 81 Articles and 7 notes, was enacted in the open session of the Islamic
Consultative Assembly on Wednesday, 1382/10/17 and was ratified by the Guardian Council on